Here are the study notes for John 6:55-66
6:55-56 For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink.  Whoever feeds on my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him.
The word “abide” is “meno” in the Greek and can mean to sojourn or tarry in a place, to be kept continually, to continue to be present, to endure, and when talking about it in relation to a state a condition of a person it can mean to “remain as one” and “not become different.”
To abide in Christ and have Him abide in us is normally meant that we are continually relying on Christ for our vitality. I like what the ESV Study notes say, “abide in me means to continue in a daily, personal relationship with Jesus, characterized by trust, prayer, obedience, and joy.”
I think that in relation to verse 55 (and all the other surrounding verses), verse 56 is saying that abiding in Christ is continually eating of the “true” food and drink that He has to offer. This means that He wants us to not simply seek His face on Sunday mornings, but rather reflects His desire to have our hearts continually seeking after Him as we would for food. We look for food at least three times a day (plus tea time if you’re English!) because we’re driven to it by hunger. The same ought to be true in our spiritual lives. “Don’t starve yourself!” Jesus is saying.
This notion of “abiding” is familiar to those of us who have closely studied the Bible for a number of years now and have heard Jesus say in John 15 that He is the vine and we are the branches. In that passage – the last of His “I Am” sayings – He says that it is our abiding in Him that gives us life as well. Here’s what John 15:1-11 says:
I am the true vine, and my Father is the vinedresser.  Every branch in me that does not bear fruit he takes away, and every branch that does bear fruit he prunes, that it may bear more fruit.  Already you are clean because of the word that I have spoken to you.  Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit by itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in me.  I am the vine; you are the branches. Whoever abides in me and I in him, he it is that bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing.  If anyone does not abide in me he is thrown away like a branch and withers; and the branches are gathered, thrown into the fire, and burned.  If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, ask whatever you wish, and it will be done for you.  By this my Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit and so prove to be my disciples.  As the Father has loved me, so have I loved you. Abide in my love.  If you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love, just as I have kept my Father’s commandments and abide in his love.  These things I have spoken to you, that my joy may be in you, and that your joy may be full.
I think it’s worth noting that there are 120 different times that this word is used throughout scripture. It’s an important concept, one that we will keep coming back to. There are two sort of nuances to abiding, I think.
The first is that abiding is a synergistic work. That is to say, it is something we work with God in accomplishing. Abiding requires us reading the Word of God, and daily submitting our lives to His authority. It requires us being in prayer, and asking for God to work through our lives, and work on us. It’s a constant seeking of God’s face (1 Chron. 16:11). This idea is articulated in the latin phrase “Coram Deo” which means to live in the face of God – to live with the mindset that we are continually dwelling in His presence. Which leads to the second part of this…
The second part of abiding, is the part that is monergistic, that is to say that it is God’s work and not ours. This kind of abiding is the kind that the Holy Spirit does in our lives once we are born again. Our abiding is done out of a motivation and love for Christ’s abiding in us and saving us. His abiding in us causes us to want to abide in Him – to spend time in His word, to spend time in prayer. So in a sense we are always abiding in Him because He is in us. But in another sort of lower sense, there is a call here for us to “abide” in Christ – and that means to seeking Him and resting in Him.
This is what we call a “paradox” because we are both seeking and resting at the same time. These things seem to be naturally opposed to each other on the surface, but only through a closer look do we find that they are not opposed to each other, but are simply different ways of expressing our relationship with Christ, and His work of sanctification within us. We rest in Him because we are secure in the promises He offers and we are secure in our salvation, but we seek Him and seek to abide in Him because we love Him and want to know Him more.
6:57-59 As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so whoever feeds on me, he also will live because of me.  This is the bread that came down from heaven, not like the bread the fathers ate, and died. Whoever feeds on this bread will live forever.”  Jesus said these things in the synagogue, as he taught at Capernaum.
I agree with Sproul who says that this is a lot like His saying to the Samaritan Woman at the well that He is the “living water” and that all who thirst should come to Him and receive water so that they may never thirst again.
The thing I think we need to particularly note is the life-giving power of Jesus. It is almost too easy to simply call it “life giving power” because there is a whole other sort of power there. And what I mean by that is that it is one thing to bring people to life who have died, and to breathe life into them, and to heal them as Christ had done – these are amazing, breathtaking things to be sure – but it is a whole separate thing to say that Christ has the power of life within Him.
So what I am getting at here, perhaps clumsily, is that Christ also has the power to bring life out of nothing. Where there was nothing before, He speaks and BOOM there’s life. He thinks and it is so. He has the power of being in Himself. In order to understand this we almost need to reach a whole other level of thinking on the person of Christ. He’s so powerful, so glorious and has such authority that His words command the planets and their orbits. The sea bows to His wishes, science works at His pleasure, and microbiology orders itself according to His good pleasure!
So again, He chooses these statements of power to punctuate His teaching on the nature of salvation. The person who holds worlds in His hands and knows the every need of BILLIONS of people, is also the God who is sovereign over salvation.
He has now claimed to have come down from heaven, to be the I AM – the very Deity Himself – and He has offered up eternal life to whomever will come to Him. In all of this He has preached His sovereignty (vs. 37 and 44 in particular), and His compassion.
Now, it is time for the disciples to digest the food Christ has given them, and at first they find it hard food to swallow…
6:60 When many of his disciples heard it, they said, “This is a hard saying; who can listen to it?”
Now there are two (and perhaps three) kinds of hard sayings, as R.C. Sproul likes to remind us. The first is the kind of hard saying that is difficult to understand. It is hard because it is truly a complex matter, which is prone to giving us a 3 aspirin headache! The second kind of “hard saying” is the kind that we hear and don’t like to accept. It is hard because we don’t care for it and would rather not believe in its truthfulness.
Steve Lawson says that this series of sayings are “not hard to understand, but hard to swallow.”
But I think that these sayings are a combination of both types of “hard” sayings. It is both unacceptable to these men because of their pride, and it is difficult to understand for even the apostles because, though they perhaps want to understand it and believe it, they cannot without the aid of Christ (or the Holy Spirit).
We have to take note of the same thing and not to approach the Bible with arrogance or presuppositions. The Bible is definitely definitive; it’s definitely clear; it’s definitely perspicuitous. But at the same time we have to be conscious not to jump to conclusions that aren’t there. We shouldn’t read something into the text that isn’t there – or try to avoid the text simply because its saying something we find offensive.
In one way this text is very comforting because we see that the disciples of Jesus early on had difficulty with some of the things he was saying. On the other hand it’s challenging to us because we know that having the Holy Spirit we ought to be able to understand these texts – at least that’s what we tell ourselves. But this is why the Bible is an inexhaustible resource that we will never fully penetrate no matter how many years we live and how long we spend in its’ pages.
Just yesterday I was talking with a pastor who said he’s been reading the Bible every day for over 40 years and was still finding things in it that he had never seen before. He told me that he says to himself “was that there the whole time?!”
But I do want to use this as an opportunity to talk about the perspicuity of scripture, and the private interpretation of scripture. Perspicuity, in a nutshell, means that something is clear and able to be understood by someone who doesn’t have a doctorate degree in theology. It means that you and me can read Scripture and understand clearly what it says without someone (i.e. a priest) from the church explaining the plain meaning of the text. This isn’t saying that we don’t all benefit from the wisdom of the church and her teachers, but is simply to say that it doesn’t take a rocket scientist to understand the sentences, paragraphs, and general meaning of words in this book.
Private interpretation is similar to perspicuity and basically means that an individual can read the Bible and understand it clearly enough (because it is perspicuitous) to be responsible for that understanding before God.
This is extremely important because with the proliferation of Bibles there is also the proliferation of wrong opinions about what those Bibles say. This was the very thing that Martin Luther and the church was concerned about before his translation project began. If the Bible were to get into the hands of the masses, how would they be able to understand it, and then have a great enough grasp of it to correctly conform their lives to its instructions? Well Luther knew the danger in this, but said that it was worth the danger because of the number of souls that would be won with the opening up of Scripture. The church as guardian of Scripture had failed miserably. The situation really couldn’t get any worse! But Luther also knew and understood that this scripture was perspicuitous and therefore, with the help of the Spirit and of wise church leaders, believers could read scripture and understand correctly what it said – even if there were mysteries within its pages that they found “hard”, as these disciples found in the verse we’ve just examined.
6:61-62 But Jesus, knowing in himself that his disciples were grumbling about this, said to them, “Do you take offense at this?  Then what if you were to see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before?
Of course the disciples wouldn’t have taken offense to Him ascending into heaven – they would have rejoiced at that. So Christ is offering them a comparison to give them perspective. He’s saying that “both A and B doctrines are true, and everything I say is true, therefore why are you offended at one versus the other?”
We need to realize that all of scripture is God’s truth. It is all relevant, it is all true. Just because one thing appears more difficult of offensive than another doesn’t mean its any less God’s word.
I can’t think of a better verse (except maybe 1 Tim. 3:16) to show us that all doctrine in scripture is God’s doctrine. All truth is God’s truth!
Christ wants to elevate our perspective. When He speaks, the matter is done. There is no appealing for an easier doctrine or an easier truth. We can’t go to God and say “please give me something easier to understand or believe in, because this really isn’t very comfortable.” We need to see Jesus’ words through the lens of His authority, and bow before them in unquestioned allegiance to His truth.
So while we talk about perspicuity, we also need to understand that just because scripture is clear and readable doesn’t mean its not mysterious/difficult. And that is what Christ addresses next…
6:63 It is the Spirit who gives life; the flesh is no help at all. The words that I have spoken to you are spirit and life.
The “flesh” He’s referring to here is not His flesh that has been the topic of the last several verses, but rather the flesh of humanity. As Sproul points out, this is a theme that runs through most of Scripture, and one that Paul especially expounds upon (Romans 7 comes to mind). The Bible sees our “flesh” as our mind, will and emotions prior to the Holy Spirit’s breathing new life into us, which Jesus calls being “born again.”
What He is essentially saying here is that in the flesh they will not be able to understand what He is saying because He is saying something spiritually related. Paul explains:
Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God. And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who are spiritual. The natural person does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are folly to him, and he is not able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned. (1 Cor. 2:12-14)
6:64-65 But there are some of you who do not believe.” (For Jesus knew from the beginning who those were who did not believe, and who it was who would betray him.)  And he said, “This is why I told you that no one can come to me unless it is granted him by the Father.”
As Sproul says, “there’s that doctrine of predestination again.” I laughed when I read that because it is this doctrine that offends so many immature Christians, and yet I was once one of them. Scripture exhorts us to strive toward greater understanding of even the most difficult doctrines. In Hebrews we read:
About this we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing.  For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the basic principles of the oracles of God. You need milk, not solid food,  for everyone who lives on milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, since he is a child.  But solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil. [6:1] Therefore let us leave the elementary doctrine of Christ and go on to maturity, not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God,  and of instruction about washings, the laying on of hands, the resurrection of the dead, and eternal judgment.  And this we will do if God permits. (Hebrews 5:11-6:3)
There’s also a direct tie-in between verses 63-65 – they build on each other. Jesus is saying that you can’t come to me (65) because you do not believe (64) and in order to believe you need the help of the Spirit (63), because in your own flesh you can’t understand these mysteries – this bread of life isn’t palatable to you (66).
This is why we say that regeneration precedes faith. Before we can see the kingdom of God we must be born again (chapter 3). Before we can believe on Christ (faith – 64), we must first be born again, otherwise we’ll simply walk away from Him and find something else that is more palatable to our sin natures (66).
The Case for ‘Limited Atonement’
It wasn’t until some time after I had first taught through this passage that I realized the significance of John’s editorial comment in verse 64. John says, “For Jesus knew from the beginning who those were who did not believe.” It stands to reason that if Jesus knew from the beginning who would not believe, then He certainly knew from the beginning who would believe.
We have already seen that, as Morris says, “The truths of which Jesus has been speaking are accessible only to faith…only for those in whom God works come to Christ.” But interestingly enough John says that Jesus knew from the beginning about who would come to him and who would not. Carson points out that this could be either from the beginning of His ministry, or from the beginning of all time (i.e. John 1:1). Regardless, the fact remains that John’s assertion has natural consequences, namely that Jesus knew for whom He was dying, and those who would not come to Him. He could know this because He was divine, and therefore omniscient. It is a mysterious thing that He would not know certain things (like the time of his return), and yet appear to know something eternally set in stone (Eph. 1:4-5) – like who would come to faith in Him and who would not.
Nevertheless, it is not for us to pry into the reasons as to why Christ knew some things and not others, but one thing He certainly did seem to know is exactly who would not believe in Him, and therefore who would come to believe in Him. This reality is usually known as the doctrine of Limited Atonement, or ‘Definite Atonement’. It has long been a stumbling block to those of a more Arminian persuasion, and even some in my own Baptist tradition have called themselves “4-point Calvinists” on the basis of eschewing this doctrine.
Yet here is the truth of God’s Word before us, in the context of highly predestinarian language, which has been set in the midst of a discussion on the sovereignty of God and His Christ in the Salvation of mankind. I don’t, therefore, think it’s a stretch to see this verse as affirming the doctrine that Christ came into the world with specific people in mind – His elect.
6:66 After this many of his disciples turned back and no longer walked with him.
What was the result of Christ’s preaching the doctrine of the atonement, and salvation, and predestination? The result was that people couldn’t take it anymore. They didn’t like what this Jesus was saying, and they didn’t want to submit their lives to someone who wouldn’t simply focus on their physical needs. These people were sinners who sought after their own desire and needs, and didn’t realize their greatest need wasn’t physical but spiritual.
The same thing will happen to us when we teach and preach hard truths. It’s easy to be turned off by someone who teaches the doctrine of predestination, isn’t it? We have to confront ourselves with the question: Am I following Christ for all the physical blessings He brings me in this life, or am I following Him because I love Him for what He’s done for me here and for eternity to come? Am I following a Jesus that doesn’t exist? Am I following someone who says, “come to me all who are weary”, but never says, “you can’t come to me unless you are drawn”? OR, am I following a Jesus who is so radical, so offensive, and so odious to my sinful self that if I had been there I would likely have “turned back” as well?
I think that this verse tells us a great deal about the nature of the entire discourse. We may be troubled when we read verse 44 or 37 telling us that no one can come to the Father unless He draws them. We may not fully understand what Christ means by eating of His flesh. We might not exactly know what He means by calling Himself the “bread of life” and so on. But we must not be like these men who gave up and walked away. If we are true Disciples of Christ we will stand by Him and work to learn more from Him. We must sit at His knees and be taught of God.
Let us humbly commit to following Christ no matter how difficult these saying may be, and no matter how our minds and hearts may not want to accept them. Let us wrestle with God as Jacob did, and let us claim the promise of God that He will help us if we would only ask. James 1:5 says, “If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.”