This week we finished off the 6th chapter of John’s gospel and in two weeks we’ll begin the 7th chapter. Below are my full notes on the section (about 7 pages worth I believe). I included all of them instead of bullet pointing because I think there’s probably a lot more below than I covered in class + I didn’t get to record the audio (oops!!). Hopefully this is sufficient. Enjoy!
6:67-69 So Jesus said to the Twelve, “Do you want to go away as well?”  Simon Peter answered him, “Lord, to whom shall we go? You have the words of eternal life,  and we have believed, and have come to know, that you are the Holy One of God.”
Before we go into what it is that Peter says, I wanted to note something that Calvin says about this shift in dialogue. “As the faith of the apostles might be greatly shaken, when they saw that they were so small a remnant of a great multitude, Christ directs his discourse to them, and shows that there is no reason why they should allow themselves to be hurried away by the lightness and unsteadiness of others.”
This is one of the things I love about Calvin; he’s always putting himself in the situation so that he can explain the context to us more accurately than we might initially compose it in our minds. And what it is that he draws out here is the compassion of Christ. He directs His attention to the disciples because He knows their hearts and thoughts and wants to be sure that they understand the truths He’s teaching. He does the same with us, don’t you think? So many times when I get shaken about something I’ve read or learned, I turn to Christ in prayer and He settles me down. He speaks soothing words to my heart and helps me understand what it is that He’s made known in His word.
The Bible and specifically the words of Christ, aren’t always easy things to understand. Carson points out that Peter’s understanding of what Jesus had been saying thus far might have been a bit “muddy.” The same is often true of myself. That is why it is so comforting to see this example of the attention Christ is giving these men. His desire is for us to learn more about Him.
Peter makes a great confession here. He must have thought to himself, “what am I to do? What can I say to this”? This is the same thing we might think from time to time. We get frustrated with something we face in life and we blame God. Or we can’t understand the difficult mysteries of Scripture so we get turned off by them and don’t read anymore, or we get rubbed wrong by a pastor or leader and stop coming to church etc. But Peter, while acknowledging that Christ’s words are difficult – note that he doesn’t deny this – still admits that Christ is the only one with the words of life. And so He is. We must therefore approach the throne of grace with confidence, but with humility, knowing that these mysteries are difficult even for those who spent time in the very presence of God incarnate.
John Piper talks about the vast wisdom and knowledge of Christ in his book ‘Seeing and Savoring Jesus Christ’ and says that the greatest knowledge Christ had was of who God was. He had this knowledge because He was God Himself! And this is what Christ is trying to get these people (and us) to understand: that He is God. Here’s what Piper says:
Nothing greater can be said about the knowledge of Jesus than that he knows God perfectly. All reality outside God is parochial compared to the infinite reality that God is. What God has made is like a toy compared to the complexity and depth of who God is. All the sciences that scratch the surface of the created universe are mere ABCs compared to Christ’s exhaustive knowledge of the created universe. And even this knowledge of the created universe is a dewdrop on a blade of grass compared to the ocean of knowledge that Jesus has of the being of God himself. While the universe is finite, God is infinite. Complete knowledge of the infinite is infinite. Therefore to know God as Jesus knows God is to have infinite knowledge.
And so this is the reality that Peter came to at the end of this discourse. And this is why verse 64 is so significant, it all points to Christ’s knowledge. He knows everything from before the foundation of the world.
There are other instances of this in Scripture. For example, in John 18:4 it says “Then Jesus, knowing all that would happen to him…” and earlier in John 2:24-25 it says, “But Jesus on his part did not entrust himself to them, because he knew all people and needed no one to bear witness about man, for he himself knew what was in man.”
I also love the example of a time when the Pharisees were trying to question Jesus to see how smart he really was, and He ended up asking them the questions instead. The passage is Matthew 23:41-46:
Now while the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them a question, saying, “What do you think about the Christ? Whose son is he?” They said to him, “The son of David.” He said to them, “How is it then that David, in the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, “‘The Lord said to my Lord, “Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet”’? If then David calls him Lord, how is he his son?” And no one was able to answer him a word, nor from that day did anyone dare to ask him any more questions.
I just love that last verse – the reaction to His scriptural example is that “nor from that day did anyone dare to ask him any more questions”! What a great verse!
This is where Peter found himself, only his reaction was one of confessional worship, while the Pharisees were simply silenced in their embarrassment.
6:70-71 Jesus answered them, “Did I not choose you, the Twelve? And yet one of you is a devil.”  He spoke of Judas the son of Simon Iscariot, for he, one of the Twelve, was going to betray him.
First we notice that Christ makes certain that His disciples understand that it is He that is doing the choosing and not themselves. This is perhaps a very clear example of election, though MacArthur says “He is not here referring to election to salvation, but rather selection to apostleship.” God knows who His chosen ones will be, as He also knew who Jesus’ disciples would be. Peter makes his declaration of faith, first and then Christ reminds him that it wasn’t Peter who chose Christ for His words, but rather Christ chose Peter that he might hear His words and choose to follow Him. So while we see that Christ might not specifically be talking about salvation, the principles of sovereignty are the same – in all things He is sovereign. As D.A. Carson says, “Ultimately, the twelve did not choose Jesus; He chose them.”
Very interesting that Jesus would choose to react in verse 70 to Peter’s confession this way. In another discourse Peter makes a more clear confession of faith and Christ responds slightly differently, but the point is really the same. That confession is found in Matthew 16:16-17.
Simon Peter replied, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” And Jesus answered him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven.
There are some wonderful parallels between this passage and the one we’re looking at here in John. As you recall, we said that being taught of God is the same as being drawn or chosen by God. And these two verses demonstrate this all the more. The Matthew passage shows us that what Peter understood about Christ did not emanate from within himself, but rather from God who revealed it to him. We might call this being “taught” of God.
The passage we have in John shows us a similar confession by Peter, though slightly different in the phraseology. He states that Jesus is the “Holy One of God” and Jesus doesn’t say specifically this time that God revealed this to him, but rather says that it wasn’t Peter that chose to have this knowledge, it wasn’t something within Peter that made him want to stay and be with Christ and follow Him, rather Jesus says that it was Christ who called him out of darkness. Peter would later write this about what it means to be a Christian:
But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people for his own possession, that you may proclaim the excellencies of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light. (1 Peter 2:9)
So we see here that Jesus isn’t going away from His main point of this passage, which is that in all things God is sovereign, and particularly in the matter of salvation.
The second thing we notice here is what Boice calls “a disturbing revelation.” He points out is that one of the disciples is “a devil” and John adds a contextual note that Judas will betray Jesus. Leon Morris says that all the gospel authors make this betrayal clear when they first introduce Judas in each of their accounts.
There is no question that Jesus is stating that He is sovereign over who will be His disciples, just as He is sovereign over salvation and is sovereign over all living things. He’s already stated this numerous times throughout the passage, and once more again just now. But why would He allow Judas to be numbered among them?
The answer lies in the fact that, while God hates evil, He allows evil, and even chooses to work through evil situations and people, to bring good to His people. This is the whole meaning of Romans 8:28. It isn’t that God simply is sovereign over the good times, and it isn’t as though these evil people are somehow out from under His thumb. No indeed. God in His mysterious sovereignty allows evil people to do what they do in order that He might bring about redemption.
This is the kind of thing that baffles us. Christ ends the passage that is so rich with predestinarian language and teaching that one can’t help but realize that from the beginning of time God had a plan for us and for His Son’s incarnation, death, and glorious resurrection. Yet we struggle with the purpose of evil. And we must be careful, because this is where errors can filter into our thinking.
We must guide our thoughts of Jesus’ allowing of Judas, and other evil men, into His plans by what we know is true about God’s character. God is not the author of evil Himself, nor does He like, or condone it. Evil is contrary to God’s holy character, it is so fully opposite of who He is that He will not evil look upon sin (Habakkuk 1:13).
And yet His Spirit strives with us while we continue to sin, and He also uses evil to accomplish His will on earth. This is close to being a paradox – it is something that seems contradictory on the surface, but when we look at God’s character we find it is not so. God can be both merciful, and holy. He can be both loving of His sinful creatures, while displaying at least some measure of His wrath at our sin.
We would not call these attributes contradictory in a person, just as we won’t call them so in God. But we do have a tendency as human beings to assume God’s mercy outweighs His justice and wrath. We tend to think of God as sort of a one-sided all loving God, or perhaps as a lopsided all-judging and wrathful God. But the truth is that God’s characteristics are balanced as He sees fit. We can’t know the “why” of His choosing to be merciful to some and deliver justice to others. He chose to be merciful to the disciples and deliver justice to Judas. He had a plan that involved Judas betraying Him. If He hadn’t have chosen Judas to be one of the 12, there would be no betrayal, no cross, and no redemption for sins.
The Mind of God and Vessels of Wrath
It is impossible to understand fully the mind of God. For the past several weeks we have been struggling with the operation of God’s choosing some and not others. We have mostly been focused on how God chose us, and how amazing it is that He would do so – and indeed it is amazing! But here we’re confronted with the necessary opposite of that choice of His. Here we see that Judas was not only not chosen for heaven, but was in fact chosen by God for a purpose – as a vessel of wrath to fulfill the scriptures.
This seems even more unacceptable and unpalatable to us that God discriminating who will be chosen to go to heaven! But the Bible isn’t silent on this either. In Romans 9 Paul explains the mysterious dilemma we’re facing right now:
But it is not as though the word of God has failed. For not all who are descended from Israel belong to Israel,  and not all are children of Abraham because they are his offspring, but “Through Isaac shall your offspring be named.”  This means that it is not the children of the flesh who are the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted as offspring.  For this is what the promise said: “About this time next year I will return, and Sarah shall have a son.”  And not only so, but also when Rebekah had conceived children by one man, our forefather Isaac,  though they were not yet born and had done nothing either good or bad—in order that God’s purpose of election might continue, not because of works but because of him who calls— she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”  As it is written, “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”
 What shall we say then? Is there injustice on God’s part? By no means!  For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”  So then it depends not on human will or exertion, but on God, who has mercy.  For the Scripture says to Pharaoh, “For this very purpose I have raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”  So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.
 You will say to me then, “Why does he still find fault? For who can resist his will?”  But who are you, O man, to answer back to God? Will what is molded say to its molder, “Why have you made me like this?”  Has the potter no right over the clay, to make out of the same lump one vessel for honorable use and another for dishonorable use?  What if God, desiring to show his wrath and to make known his power, has endured with much patience vessels of wrath prepared for destruction,  in order to make known the riches of his glory for vessels of mercy, which he has prepared beforehand for glory (Romans 9:6-23 ESV)
This is an astounding passage of scripture and it would be easy to fall into error if we don’t properly understand what God is saying here.
In one sense, God is both active and in another He is passive. This is a paradox – not a contradiction (hence why I’ve taken the time in the past to explain this important principle). God is actively not choosing some men – like Judas, and in the passage above Esau, while He is also not actively putting any kind of evil into their hearts.
This doctrine is called by some “Double-Predestination”, and the idea is that God elects some to life and others to destruction, while not retracting any responsibility from mankind whatsoever. Judas was still responsible for his actions. So then, God knows both who will go to hell and who will go to heaven. He elects believers to life – we know that because we’ve spent the last few weeks reading all about Christ’s teaching on the matter. But now we read that He also has plans for Judas – plans that end in his destruction. We can’t escape the fact that Jesus knew what was going to happen, and not only knew, but also chose to have Judas as part of the 12.
But none of this makes God the author of evil, nor does it take away Judas’ responsibility for his own sin. This is why it is so very important that we have a clear understanding that mankind is fallen, sinful, and without God. We are strangers and aliens (Eph. 2:19) to God until He brings us into His kingdom. Once we understand our radical depravity, we’ll understand how God can not be the author of evil, and yet allow some men (like Judas) to be vessels of wrath.
Just as with Pharaoh, Judas was a sinner who loved the darkness rather than the light (John 3:19-21). We are all the same way. Why did Judas sell Christ out to the Pharisees? For money! He was a lover of money and not a lover of God. It wasn’t as though Christ did something within the heart of Judas to make him do what he did. No indeed. We all are bound for Hell regardless of how sinful we are because we’re all sinful at some level – we were born that way. So all men, in a manner of speaking, are destined for Hell until God intervenes and saves us from that terrible destruction!
But we know that here there’s another more terrible reality. God actively allowed this man to do what he did. Judas was a vessel of wrath. The same was true for Pharaoh. But in “hardening” Pharaoh’s heart, God was not placing some new evil there, but rather turning Pharaoh over to him own desires. Paul tells us in Romans 1:24 and 1:26 that God “gave them up” to their sins.
God does actively make His children alive from the dead through the power of His spirit, and God does actively pass over those who are not His children. But God does not actively implant evil in men – He doesn’t need to! For we are already evil, and when He lifts His restraining arm of common grace from our lives and turns us over to ourselves, we quickly destroy ourselves.
In all of this, He has a purpose and a plan.
The Answer is Hidden in His Purposes
The “answer” or the “reason” in all of this is that God chooses some for heaven and not others – in fact He hardens some and not others. And this seems difficult, but we don’t know all of His reasoning, we just know that He does it because for His own pleasure and for His own glory.
You see, as Paul pointed out, God is the creator, and as part of the Trinity, Christ was a part of that creation process. So Christ saying that He chose these 12 men – including one as a vessel of destruction – is the same as God saying He chose these 12. Jesus is God, and that is what He’s trying to get across. He can do whatever He wants with His creation for His own glory and pleasure. We’re the creatures. He made us and can really do whatever He wants.
When I was younger I played with Lego men, army men, and GI Joe figurines. I would make Lego fortresses and ships and zoom them around my bedroom. Some I kept in pristine condition because I wanted to make certain I could continue to use them the next day, but others I crashed into the floor. I did so because it was my pleasure to do so, because it brought my joy. Now God is not an 8-year-old boy. God’s heart is much more complex and more sincere and loving. And we are not merely Lego men, but we are creatures and He is the creator and He is absolutely sovereign over our lives and over who will join Him in heaven, and who He will use as vessels of wrath.
Judas was placed where he was because God allowed it. Boice talks about how this was an ongoing trial for Jesus – even when He was alone with the 12, He had an enemy in His presence.
A.W. Pink says that God chose Judas for several reasons:
- Because it furnished an opportunity for Christ to display His perfections
- It provided an impartial witness to the moral excellency of Christ
- It gave occasion to uncover the awfulness of sin.
- The choice of Judas supplies the sinner with a solemn warning – Boice says, “A person may experience the closest possible contact with Jesus and still not come to Him for salvation.”
- The presence of Judas shows us that we may expect to find hypocrites among the followers of Jesus.
- It affords us one more illustration of how radically different are God’s thoughts and ways from ours.
This is a mystery that will not be solved in one day or in one reading. We have to have faith that God, who created us and has saved us, also has a plan that is bigger than our finite minds can comprehend.
What Should our Reaction be?
I think the only proper reaction to this is to fear the Lord. We too easily forget that His ways are not our ways. His thoughts are not our thoughts. So often we use that as a cop-out for learning more about God, but this is one instance where His mind and His plans are simply out of bounds. And I do not mean simply beyond out understanding, but also beyond our questioning. What He has purposed from eternity past we must not question. Instead we must bow before Him in admiration for His power, His sovereignty, and His love for us. For indeed we see evil all around us. We ourselves were once enemies of God. And yet, not because of anything in us – “not because of man who wills or who runs” but for His own purposes and His own glory (Eph. 2:8-9) He has chosen to redeem us from our fallen state (Rom. 5:8). He does this because He wants your worship. God has saved you for a point. He has not only saved you from something but also for something (Eph. 2:10). He wants you to know about these great truths because He wants your to be broken. He wants you to be humbly relying completely on Him – for surely if He has planned all things from eternity, He can guide you through the rocky shoals of life.
This should cause us to love God. We see what He’s done in us, and though we can’t know His secret purposes, we do know the why of His purposes in our lives and what we ought to do with this new life we’ve been given. Boice says, “let us learn to trust God in matters for which we can see no reason. Let us humble ourselves before Him. Moreover, since we can se that God’s thoughts are not our thoughts, let us learn that our thoughts must change.”
I pray we learn to use this small understanding of His ways to foster a new love for Him in our hearts. For we love Him because He first loved us (1 John 4:19).